考博英语语法重点总结8

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最佳答案A. to do B. how to do C. what to doD. to doing 35.On seeing the young child ___into the lake, John sprang to his feet, a

A. to do     B. how to do     C. what to do   D. to doing  

35.On seeing the young child ___into the lake, John sprang to his feet, and went to the rescue.

A. fell   B. fall   C. falling   D to fall    

36 We don’t want ____any   comrades lagging behind.  

A. there being   B.there to being   C.there to be   D.there is  

37.I must make full use of the time ___left to me and do as much as I can for the people.

A. there being   B. there is   C. there are   D. there to be  

38.It is not uncommon for ____problems of communication between old and young.  

A. there to be   B.   there being   C there to being   D. there be    

39.Revolution means   ___ the productive forces.  

A. to liberate.   B. to have liberated    

C. liberating     D. having being liberated  

40.The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each ____one major point in contrast with the other.

A. make         B. made       C. is to make     D. making    

标准答案:  

1-5   ADDCD     6-10   ACCAC     11-15 CCDCA   16-20 CDBBA    

21-25 DBDDA     26-30 BAAAC     31-35 CBBBB   36-40 CBACD

虚拟语气归纳和练习

虚拟语气的重点是:  

1.一些常见的虚拟语气的句型或结构。  

2.虚拟语气的特殊形式,即用来表示要求、建议、命令、提议、意愿等的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟形式。  

3.主从句表示不同的时间概念、事实或假设情况,从而交错成为复合虚拟语气。  

4.含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气的表示愿望的虚拟形式。  

   上述四个要点往往在完形填空或者阅读理解里面存在,尤其是每年完形填空都至少有一道直接考这方面的知识的题目,而在阅读理解里,我们掌握上述四个重点对于我们理解文章的大意和作者态度很有帮助,了解哪些观点是作者假设的、虚拟的,哪些是真实的,这样对于我们回答关于作者态度观点题很有帮助。  

下面我们将主要从上述四个方面来重点论述在考试中应该注意的问题。  

一、虚拟语气的常见类型和句型  

(1)由wish引起的表示愿望的虚拟语气  

A.用wish表示对现在的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:过去式(be动词用were)。  

B.用wish表示对将来的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:would, could, might+ 动词原形。  

C.wish用于对过去的事实表示一种不可能实现的愿望时,宾语从句中的谓语动词形式为:had+动词过去分词或could, would + have +动词过去分词。  

The picture exhibition bored me to death; I wish I had not gone to it.  

---“I let Joe borrow our radio for the afternoon.”  

---“That’s all right, but I wish he would buy one of his own.”

I wish that he weren’t so lazy.  

(2)had hoped引起的宾语从句中备用语动词形式为would+动词原形,表示一种过去未实现的愿望或令人失望的事。  

His father had hoped that his son would go to business with him, but his son became an artist later.

(3)would (had) rather, would as soon, would sooner和would prefer所引起的从句中要求用过去式表示当时或将来的情况,用过去完成时表示过去的情况,表示希望或婉转的责备。例如:  

I’d rather you posted the letter right away. 我倒希望你把这封信立刻寄出去。  

I would prefer he didn’t stay there too long.我倒希望他不要在那儿可得太久。  

I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。  

(4)It’s (high, about) time that 句型中that从句中要求用虚拟语气形式,即动词要用过去式。  

It’s time that something was done about the traffic problem downtown.  

It is high time that we   put an end to this discussion.现在是我们该结束讲座的时候了。

(5)as, 或者whether…or…谓语多用be的原形,引导让步虚拟从句,这种用法通常采用倒装结构:  

Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamivc, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.

The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.  

(6)由连接词in case, so that ,unless, lest ,for fear that引起的状语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟形式,即should(might, would)+动词原形,例如:  

She put a blanket over the baby for fear that he should catch cold. 她在那个婴儿身上盖上了毯子以免他着凉。  

The bad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself.  

(7) if it were not for…与现在事实相反, if it had not been for与过去事实相反,两个都相当于but for:  

If it had not been for his help(=but for his help),we would not have succeeded.  

(8) 虚拟语气用于as if(though)引起的方式状语从句和表语从句中,其动词形式与wish宾语从句的形式相同。例如:She often laughs spontaneously, and her good humor breaks out as brightly as if it were a part of the sunshine above.她常常发出发自内心的微笑,而且她那美好的情绪像天上一道明亮的阳光一样,常常流露出来。  

They talked as if they had been friends for years.他们交谈着,就好像他们是我年的老朋友一样。  

She looks as if she would cry.她看起来好像要哭了。  

(9)其它各种句型, as though, suppose, had rather, supposing, if only等等  

If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I buried my head in my hands for a cry.  

二、特殊形式的虚拟语气  

虚拟语气的特殊形式,即用来表示要求、建议、命令、提议、意愿等的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟形式,其虚拟语气的构成往往是由should(可省略)+动词原形that从句。  

A、 用于表示意愿、建议、命令、提议、请求等动词后的that宾语从句中,这类动词有:

ask要求           advise建议             arrange安排         beg请求      

command命令       decide决定             demand要求         desire渴望  

determine决定       insist坚持             intend打算           maintain坚持主张  

move建议,动员   propose提议           object反对           order命令  

prefer建议         require 需要           request要求         resolve下决心  

recommend推荐     suggest建议           stipulate约定,规定   urge强调,促进  

vote公认,提议     decree颁布(法令)     pray请求  

注意:这类动词后面除了可接that虚拟句以外,也可以接doing或者to do…来表达,一般情况下,意思没有什么差别。  

She advised that we should keep the gate locked.(书面体)  

She advised us to keep the gate locked.(口语)  

She advised keeping the gate locked.(较随便)  

B、用于It is+形容词或过去分词+主语从句中,这类形容词或分词有:  

advisable合理的       decided决定的       crucial关键的     appropriate恰当的  

determined决定的     commanded命令的   arranged安排的   essential紧要的,基本的  

complied遵照         anxious焦急的       imperative迫切的 important重要的  

desirable合意的       better较好的,更好   insistent坚持的       desired想要  

asked请求           keen渴望的         incredible难以置信的 adamant坚定不移的  

natural自然的         insisted坚持         necessary必要的     suggested建议  

urgent紧迫的         ordered命令         shocked震惊的       vital极其重要的  

possible可能的       strange 奇怪的       preferable (好一点) proposed提议  

requested要求的       required要求的       recommended推荐     resolved决定的  

probable(可能的)   pity可惜,憾事       shame遗憾  

注意:这类形容词后面除了可接that虚拟句以外,也可以for…to do…  

来表达,一般情况下,意思没有什么差别。  

It is essential that he should be prepared for this.  

It is essential for him to be prepared for this.  

C.用于由表示建议、要求、命令、请示等含义的名词引导的表语从句和同位语从句中,这类名词常见的有:

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